In Egypt, industry process emissions and energy-related CO₂ emissions from industry each accounted for about 11% and 12% respectively of total emissions in 2019. Energy-related emissions have fluctuated but have overall increased by 47% from 1990 to 2019. Process-related emissions have steadily increased, more than tripling over the same period. The largest industry sectors in Egypt include textiles, food processing and chemicals. The cement industry is the largest contributor to industry emissions in Egypt and was identified as the most attractive sector for mitigation efforts in the industry sector given its size and competitiveness.
Energy-related emissions from Egypt’s industry sector increased slower than process-related emissions. The industry sector remains highly reliant on fossil fuels, with about three quarters of the energy mix supplied by fossil fuels (37% natural gas, 25% oil and e-fuels, and 15% coal in 2019). Across analysed pathways, electrification increases from about a quarter of the industrial energy mix in 2019 to 26-32% by 2030 and 59-70% by 2050, for most ambitious scenarios. Fossil fuels remain in the mix, but coal is largely phased out around 2030-2035. Within the industry sector, fertilizer production is the largest energy consumer in Egypt. On October 2021, the Sovereign Wealth Fund of Egypt signed an agreement for a green ammonia plant that utilises green hydrogen feedstock and renewable energy.
While some models indicate that process-related emissions could reach zero emissions before 2040 at the earliest, this would require investments in innovation and R&D in the sector to drive the decarbonisation of the harder-to-abate process-related emissions.