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Thailand Current situation

What is Thailandʼs pathway to limit global warming to 1.5°C?

Emissions profile

Thailand’s energy sector made up 75% of Thailand’s total GHG emissions in 2017, excluding LULUCF.4

The second largest emitting sector is agriculture which made up 15% of total GHG emissions in 2017 (excluding LULUCF). Rice cultivation is responsible for over 50% of the sector’s emissions followed by soil management (23%) and enteric fermentation from livestock (16%).4

Industrial processes generate 6% of Thailand’s total emissions (excluding LULUCF). The majority of industry emissions are from the mineral industry (60%), followed by the chemical industry, metal production and non-energy products (38% combined).4

The waste sector is responsible for 4% of Thailand’s total emissions. Roughly half of those come from wastewater treatment and discharge, with the remaining emissions from solid waste disposal.4

1 Government of the Kingdom of Thailand. Thailand’s 2nd Updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). (2022).

2 Climate Action Tracker. Thailand. September 2021 update. Climate Action Tracker. (2021).

3 Government of Kingdom of Thailand. Long-Term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategy (Revised Version). (2022).

4 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Thailand Third Biennial Update Report. (2020).

5 IEA. Thailand. International Energy Agency (2021).

6 Ministry of Energy. Power Development Plan Revision 1 (2018).

7 The Diplomat. Thailand’s Renewable Energy Transitions: A Pathway to Realize Thailand 4.0. (2019).

8 Thailand Government. Mid-century, Long-term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategy Thailand. (2021).

9 IEA. Thailand. International Energy Agency (2021).

10 Kahintapongs, S. Renewable Energy Policy Development in Thailand. International Journal of Multidisciplinary in Management and Tourism 4, 148–155 (2020).

11 Luangchosiri, N., Ogawa, T., Okumura, H. & Ishihara, K. N. Success Factors for the Implementation of Community Renewable Energy in Thailand. Energies 2021, Vol. 14, Page 4203 14, 4203 (2021).

12 Campbell, I. & Barlow, C. Hydropower Development and the Loss of Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin. Front Environ Sci 8, 200 (2020).

13 Ministry of Energy. Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP) 2018. (2018).

14 IEA. Putting a price on carbon – an efficient way for Thailand to meet its bold emission target. International Energy Agency (2020).

15 APERC. Compendium Of Energy Efficiency Policies in APEC Economies: Thailand. (2017).

16 Government of Kingdom of Thailand. Mid-century, Long-term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategy (2021).

17 Nama Facility. Thailand – Thai Rice NAMA. Nama Facility.

18 Government of the Kingdom of Thailand. Thailand’s 2nd Updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). (2022).

19 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Climate Change Master Plan of Thailand. (2015).

20 International Energy Agency. Thailand – Countries & Regions – IEA. (2021).

21 Greenpeace. Southeast Asia Power Sector Scorecard. (2020).

22 EGAT. EGAT Overview. (2020).

23 EGAT. Why does EGAT plan to build more coal-fired power plants when other Asian countries like China and India suspend new ones? Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (2020).

24 Kusumadewi, T. V., Winyuchakrit, P., Misila, P. & Limmeechokchai, B. GHG Mitigation in Power Sector: Analyzes of Renewable Energy Potential for Thailand’s NDC Roadmap in 2030. Energy Procedia 138, 69–74 (2017).

25 Smuthkalin, C., Murayama, T. & Nishikizawa, S. Evaluation of The Wind Energy Potential of Thailand considering its Environmental and Social Impacts using Geographic Information Systems. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER) 8, 575–584 (2018).

26 Manomaiphiboon, K. et al. Wind energy potential analysis for Thailand: Uncertainty from wind maps and sensitivity to turbine technology. 14, 528–539 (2017).

27 Kompor, W., Ekkawatpanit, C. & Kositgittiwong, D. Assessment of ocean wave energy resource potential in Thailand. Ocean Coast Manag 160, 64–74 (2018).

28 Climate Action Tracker. Paris Agreement Compatible Sectoral Benchmarks: Elaborating the decarbonisation roadmap. Climate Action Tracker. (2020).

29 Thailand Government. Thailand’s Long Term Low Greenhouse Gas Emissions Development Strategy. (2022).

30 DEDE. Thailand Economy Update. (2020).

31 EGS-plan. Thailand’s Building Energy Code (BEC) enters into force as from 13th March 2021. (2021).

32 Gütschow, J., Günther, A. & Pflüger, M. The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series v2.3 (1750-2019). Preprint at (2021).

33 Wongsapai, W. Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Target. (2017).

34 EPPO. Energy Conservation Promotion Act. (2007).

35 Electrive. Thailand to only allow BEV sales from 2035 – Electrive. (2021).

36 Thailand Development Research Institute. Clean energy needs far clearer policy. (2022).

37 USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Thailand: Updated Biofuel Situation in 2022. (2022).

38 While global cost-effective pathways assessed by the IPCC Special Report 1.5°C provide useful guidance for an upper-limit of emissions trajectories for developed countries, they underestimate the feasible space for such countries to reach net zero earlier. The current generation of models tend to depend strongly on land-use sinks outside of currently developed countries and include fossil fuel use well beyond the time at which these could be phased out, compared to what is understood from bottom-up approaches. The scientific teams which provide these global pathways constantly improve the technologies represented in their models – and novel CDR technologies are now being included in new studies focused on deep mitigation scenarios meeting the Paris Agreement. A wide assessment database of these new scenarios is not yet available; thus, we rely on available scenarios which focus particularly on BECCS as a net-negative emission technology. Accordingly, we do not yet consider land-sector emissions (LULUCF) and other CDR approaches.

Thailandʼs current GHG emissions


Displayed values

By sector

  • Combustion
  • Fugitive emissions
  • Other
  • Agriculture
  • Industry (processes)
  • Waste
Energy (75%)69%0

By gas

  • CO₂
  • CH₄
  • N₂O
  • Other

Sectors by gas

Industry (processes)

Energy system

The power, transport and industry sectors represent the lion’s share of the energy sector emissions.
The electricity sector is dominated by fossil fuels. Fossil gas comprised 66% of the power mix in 2020, whereas coal represented 20%.5 Renewable energy currently represents just 16% of the power mix, and it mainly comes from biofuels. Solar and wind have begun to penetrate the power market in recent years although their share remains low (4%). Hydropower made up a 2% share in 2020.

Thailand’s Power Development Plan (PDP) 2018 foresees fossil gas to represent 53% of power generation by 2037 with coal making up 12% and 9% planned to come from imported hydropower.6,7 The plan also indicates that renewable energy capacity will increase to 37% of the planned new power capacities. The previous PDP set targets for 2036 and the revised version sets them for 2037. In comparison to the previous PDP, Thailand plans to increase its reliance on gas (from 37% to 53%) and decrease its reliance on coal (from 23% to 12%).6

Transport was responsible for the largest share of energy consumption in 2018 (39%), and was responsible for 20% of Thailand’s total emissions in 2016 (excl. LULUCF).4 Thailand aims to decarbonise transport through a CO2 emissions tax, promoting low carbon vehicles and expanding rail infrastructure.4 Thailand has an electric vehicle (EV) roadmap, with a goal to become an EV manufacturing hub for the region, and for 100% of new vehicle sales to be EVs by 2035.2

The Energy Efficiency Plan (EEP 2018-2037) aims for a 30% reduction in energy intensity (energy use per unit of GDP) by 2037 from 2010 level.8

Thailand is increasingly reliant on coal, oil and fossil gas imports,9 which makes it highly dependent on international markets and creates energy insecurity and fuel price risks. Renewable energy offers an opportunity for domestic energy production.10,11 However, hydropower developments in the Mekong River basin, with close to 52 million people depending on it for their livelihoods, could negatively impact biodiversity, livelihoods and economies of the local communities.12

Targets and commitments

Economy-wide targets

Target type

Baseline scenario target

NDC target

Unconditional NDC Target:

  • 30% below business-as-usual by 2030 (excl. LULUCF) or 389 MtCO₂e in 2030.

Conditional NDC Target:

  • 40% below business-as-usual by 2030 (excl. LULUCF) or (333 MtCO₂e in 2030.

Market mechanism

Open to exploring bilateral, regional, and multilateral market-based cooperation.

Long-term target

Thailand committed to a “carbon neutrality” target for 2065 in its Long-term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategy (LTS) submitted to the UNFCCC in October 2021.8 In 2022, Thailand submitted a revision of the LTS, brought forward the carbon neutrality year to 2050 and set the target of achieving net zero GHG emissions by 2065.3

Sector coverage


Greenhouse gas coverage


Sectoral targets


  • 30% of total energy consumption to be non-fossil energy (renewable) by 2037 (AEDP 2018).13
  • 30–35% heat generated from renewables by 2037 (AEDP 2018).13
  • Energy intensity reduced by 30% by 2037 from 2010 baseline. The target is equivalent to a reduction of 54,371 ktoe from 181,238 ktoe (EEP 2018).8


  • Reduction of energy consumption by 4,819 ktoe by 2036 in commercial and public buildings and 2,153 ktoe in the residential sector.15
  • Renewable energy in households Total Final Energy Consumption (TFEC) will represent 49% in 2050 (LTS).16

In the revised LTS3

  • Installation of most efficient lighting technologies by 2030 in both residential and commercial buildings.
  • Installation of most efficient electrical devices by 2035 in both residential and commercial buildings.
  • Increase the use of efficient solar water heaters.


  • Reduce emissions from rice production by 26% between 2018–2023.17


  • Increase forest areas to 55% of the country’s land by 2037.2


  • Net production capacity increased by 67% from 46,090 MW in 2017 to 77,211 MW in 2037.6
  • 33% renewable energy power capacity by 2037.6
  • 9% imported hydro power and 21% renewable generation by 2037.14
  • 68% renewable power by 2040 and 74% by 2050 (LTS).3


  • 25% biofuels share in the transport sector energy demand.13
  • 250,000 EVs, 3,000 electric public buses, 53,000 electric motorcycles by 2025.2
  • 100% of car production to be EVs by 2030.2
  • EVs to represent 100% of new vehicle sales by 2035.2
  • The share of liquid biofuels increase from 8% in 2030 to 34% by 2050 in total final energy consumption (TFEC) (LTS).8


  • Covered under the EEP 2018 target, conservation of 49,064 ktoe by 2037 compared to 2010.8
  • For heating systems, renewables to represent 46% in 2030 and 50% in 2050 in TFEC (LTS).8

In the revised LTS Thailand has added the following targets for manufacturing industries:3

  • Introduction of efficient lighting, cooling and motor technologies by 2025 and maintaining the best-in-class standard thereafter.
  • Increased use of renewable energy.
  • Introduction of electric heating technologies by 2035.
  • Use of green hydrogen by 2045.