Transportation GHG emissions accounted for 15% of Kazakhstan’s national GHG emissions in 2017 (excl. LULUCF). Transport direct CO₂ emissions have increased by 24% since 2010. Fossil fuels accounted for 95% of the transport sector’s final energy mix in 2019, almost entirely from oil. The remaining 5% was supplied by electricity.
Across analysed pathways, direct CO₂ emissions from transport are eliminated by around 2050. This is supported by rapid electrification, reaching 21-40% by 2030 and 67-90% by 2050. Pathways that show lower penetration of electricity in the transport sector have higher shares of hydrogen or biofuels, reaching 25-70% and 3-14% of the transport energy mix by 2050, respectively. Under its carbon neutrality scenario, Kazakhstan’s Doctrine to achieve carbon neutrality expects electricity to account for 72% of transport energy demand by 2060, with a further 11% from biofuels and 8% from hydrogen.
As an important land bridge connecting European and Asian trade, Kazakhstan accounts for more than 80% of Central Asian rail freight activity. About one-quarter of Kazakhstan’s railway network is electrified. Rail also accounts for the majority of freight transport in Kazakhstan (about 60%); however, road projects account for about 80% of planned and under construction transport infrastructure investments. While the current share of electric vehicles (EVs) in Kazakhstan is low, the government has adopted some policies to support EV adoption and manufacturing.