Primary energy is almost entirely supplied by fossil fuels: 47% from coal, 28% from fossil gas and 24% from oil. Since 2010, the shares of coal and gas have declined, largely replaced with oil. Non-biomass renewables have increased, but marginally, only accounting for 1.5% of primary energy.
Kazakhstan’s power mix is also dependent on fossil fuels, with coal generating 69% of electricity and natural gas generating 20% in 2019. The remaining generation is from non-biomass renewables, primarily hydropower.
In 2013, Kazakhstan adopted its Concept for Kazakhstan’s Transition to Green Economy, developed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and UNDP as a strategic policy document, with targets for renewable energy, gas, and energy efficiency. The Concept targets a 30% share of electricity generation from alternative and renewable energy sources, including nuclear, by 2030, and a 50% share by 2050. The concept also foresees an expansion of natural gas to 25% by 2030 and 30% by 2050. A faster phase-out of fossil fuels and renewables expansion will be needed to align with the 1.5°C pathways assessed here.