The current main driver of the energy sector emissions is fuel combustion activities, accounting for around 99% of the 2019 energy-related emissions, mostly from the power, industry and transport sectors. Decrease in emissions from the mining/bauxite sector was mostly due to the impact of global economic downturn resulting in lower productivity of the industry.
In 2010, Jamaica relied on imported petroleum for 91% of its energy needs. The National Energy Policy 2009–2030 lays out plans to promote renewable energy and fuel diversification. The policy includes a target of increasing the renewable energy share to 30% by 2030 and an overall target of 20% of energy from renewables, with estimates showing that it could increase to 50%. In 2019, around 11% of electricity generation came from renewable energy sources. In 2019, oil was the primary energy source, with an 82% share, followed by gas, biomass, coal and non-biomass renewables.
The energy sector faces many challenges in reducing GHG emissions largely due to an inefficient power sector. The government is taking action to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions, including through the National Energy Policy 2009–2030. In 2009, however, the government opted for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as the alternative for energy diversification.