Although overall energy consumption has dropped considerably in the last ten years, emissions from the buildings sector have increased. In 2019, the share of residential and commercial buildings in Romania’s overall energy consumption was 13.5%.3 Direct emissions from Romania’s building sector would need to fall by between 39-59% below 2019 levels by 2030, reaching zero between 2034-2045, to be 1.5°C compatible.
Romania has set a goal to renovate 100% of public buildings by 2050.8 While this is commendable, it is insufficient without a similar level of ambition towards residential buildings, which has the largest share of buildings requiring renovation (around 91%) and also has the highest energy consumption (around 81%). For the 2021-2030 period, a priority to reduce energy consumption should be to target larger multi-apartment buildings first, followed by public buildings and single-family buildings.9
Raising the electrification of final energy demand in the buildings sector through measures such as incentivising the installation of heat pumps, would contribute greatly to emissions reduction in the sector. Achieving a 1.5°C compatible electrification rate would require roughly doubling electricity’s share in final energy from 2019 levels by 2030, reaching well over 50% by 2050.
1 European Commission. Assessment of the final national energy and climate plan of Romania. 2020.
2 Government of Romania. National Energy and Climate Plan – Romania. 2020.
3 European Environment Agency. EEA greenhouse gases – data viewer. 2021.
4 International Energy Agency. IEA world energy balances, 2020. 2020.
5 European Environment Agency. Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption. 2021.
6 European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association. Making the transition to zero-emission mobility: 2021 progress report. 2021.
7 Bankwatch Network. The Romanian renewable energy sector: a potential still untapped. 2020.
8 Romanian Government. National long-term renovation strategy. 2020.
9 Ministry of Public Works Development and Administration. Romanian national long-term renovation strategy: key elements. 2020.
10 Petre, G. Romania might become one of Europe’s biggest hydrogen hubs: investments of over 1,6 bn euros are in early stages of development. CEEnergy News. 2021.
11 Global Gas Plant Tracker, last updated August 2022, by Global Energy Monitor can be found here.
Romaniaʼs energy mix in the buildings sector
petajoule per year
- Natural gas
- Oil and e-fuels
Romaniaʼs buildings sector direct CO₂ emissions (of energy demand)
- Historical emissions
- SSP1 Low CDR reliance
- High energy demand - Low CDR reliance
1.5°C compatible buildings sector benchmarks
Direct CO₂ emissions and shares of electricity, heat and biomass in the buildings final energy demand from illustrative 1.5°C pathways for Romania
Decarbonised buildings sector by
Direct CO₂ emissions
4 to 6
0 to 3
0 to 1
2034 to 2045
Relative to reference year in %
−59 to −39%
−97 to −70%
−99 to −86%
Share of electricity
29 to 39
43 to 50
56 to 59
Share of heat
11 to 21
17 to 26
26 to 29
Share of hydrogen
1 to 11
7 to 15
13 to 20