The DRC’s energy sector accounted for around 5% of emissions in 2017 when excluding the LULUCF emissions. The sector is dominated by the domestic and industrial use of biofuels and waste which accounted for approximately 95% of total primary energy supply and 92% of total final consumption in 2017. Oil (2% or 849.76 Ktoe) and hydropower (2% or 815.31 Ktoe) accounted for the remaining total primary energy supply.
The residential sector, in 2017, accounted for 69% (13049.30 Ktoe) of the DRC’s energy consumption followed by the commercial and public service sector at 25% (4689.72 Ktoe), the transport sector at 4% (826.86 Ktoe), and finally the industrial sector at 2% (414.84 Ktoe). Traditional biomass (firewood and charcoal) constituted 99% of the residential sector’s final energy consumption in 2017. Using biomass for energy contributes to deforestation in the DRC. Increasing electrification rate of end-use sectors and access to clean cooking options would significantly curb household biomass combustion, reduce fossil fuel usage, and improve indoor air quality.
In 2011, the DRC had an estimated 1,600 million barrels of proven recoverable oil reserves. Despite these significant oil reserves, the DRC has no oil refineries. Thus, the country exports all production and imports refined petroleum products, which were the country’s second largest import in 2019. There was no production, consumption, exportation or importation of coal and only 12 TJ of natural gas supply in 2018.
In 2017, electricity comprised 3.6% of the total final energy consumption in the DRC. The vast majority of electricity is produced with hydropower. Though the DRC is considered to be among the top five countries with the largest hydroelectrical potential in the world, it has one of the lowest electricity access rates in the world.