The Gambia faces a number of challenges with regard to energy supply. The Gambia’s total primary energy supply in 2018 was predominantly composed of oil (51%) and renewable energy (48%). The Gambia imports all of its needed fuel oil, which is not only a burden on its economy but also an issue of energy insecurity. The Gambia continues to promote efforts to extract oil domestically to reduce fuel oil imports.
The Gambia generates almost all of its renewable energy from bioenergy which is almost entirely consumed by households. Households mostly use wood as an energy source and account for over 80% of total energy demand. Bioenergy is one of the least regulated sectors and more efforts are needed to mitigate forest loss from fuel wood harvesting.
The Gambia has significant solar energy resources, but as of 2020, the country had only 2 MW of solar and 1 MW of wind installed capacity. The government has highlighted solar PV as one of the least cost renewable energy technologies as it seeks to address steadily increasing electricity consumption and achieve universal access to electricity by 2025., The Gambia has a total of 170 MW in solar PV projects in the pipeline for 2021–2025, though the projects have suffered from delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic.