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Ghana Sectors

What is Ghanaʼs pathway to limit global warming to 1.5°C?

The transport sector represents the second largest share of energy consumption in Ghana, accounting for 34% of total final consumption in 2019.8 Emissions from the transport sector have risen by 34% between 2012 and 2016, and were responsible for 17% of total national GHG emissions in the same year.1 The sector was responsible for most of the country’s fuel consumption (56%) in 2016, with diesel, gasoline, and LPG being the most-consumed fuels. Road transportation (particularly passenger vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles and buses) are the largest source of emissions within the sector.1

To align with 1.5°C compatible pathways, direct annual CO₂ emissions from the transport sector should be roughly halved by 2030 (from 9 MtCO₂e/yr in 2019 to between 4-5 MtCO₂e/yr in 2030), and reach full decarbonisation by 2047-2050. This can be achieved through a rapid uptake of electricity and potentially the use of biofuels ideally made from non-food feedstocks. The share of electricity could grow from 0% in 2019 to 5-21% by 2030, and 33-44% by 2050 and the share of biofuels from 0% in 2019 to 2-11% by 2030, and between 10-62% by 2050.

While Ghana has articulated various interventions in relation to the transport sector in its NDC, there are no quantified targets available. The updated NDC includes a policy action to expand inter and intra city transport modes (with an estimated mitigation impact of 200 MtCO₂e), although the document does not elaborate on the modes to be expanded.7

In 2019, Ghana also launched a “Drive Electric Campaign”, which aimed to promote the use of electric vehicles in the country, and have at least 100 electric vehicles and 10 public charging outlets in the country by 2020.13 It is unclear if these goals have been met, and what their mitigation potential would be. The Government of Ghana was also developing a Draft Electric Mobility Policy in 2020, although the current status of the policy is unclear.14

Lastly, Ghana has articulated its intention to modernise and expand its railway network, which could mitigate emissions from road transportation.5 While the mitigation potential of most of these interventions is unclear, they are positive steps towards the decarbonisation of the transport sector in Ghana.

1 Environmental Protection Agency of Ghana. Ghana’s Fourth National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2019.

2 Xinhua. Ghana committed to achieving net-zero carbon emission by 2070: VP. (2022).

3 Xinhua. Ghana committed to achieving net-zero carbon emission by 2070 – Bawumia. News Ghana (2022).

4 Ministry of Petroleum, Government of Ghana. Gas Master Plan Developed By Ministry of Petroleum. 2016.

5 National Development Planning Commission. National Medium-Term Development Policy Framework 2022-2025. 2021.

6 Government of Ghana. Ghana’s Second Biennial Update Report. 2018.

7 Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment, S. T. and I. Updated Nationally Determined Contribution under the Paris Agreement (2020 – 2030). 2021.

8 International Energy Agency. Ghana: Data Browser. International Energy Agency. 2022.

9 African Development Bank. Climate Change Profile – Ghana. 2018.

10 Environmental Protection Agency. Ghana’s Fourth National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2020.

11 Ministry of Energy, Government of Ghana. Ghana Renewable Energy Master Plan. 2019. Preprint at

12 Environmental Protection Agency. Ghana’s Third Biennial Update Report to United Nations Climate Change. 2021.

13 Republic of Ghana. Drive Electric Initiative. 2019.

14 The Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN). CTCN in Ghana: Developing a national policy on e-mobility. The Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN). 2020.

15 Values expressed in Global Warming Potentials from the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).

16 See calculations and assumptions here

17 The NDC articulates that emissions from selected extractive and manufacturing industries have not been included. Justification for this can be found on Page 14 of Ghana’s updated NDC.

Ghanaʼs energy mix in the transport sector

petajoule per year

SSP1 Low CDR reliance
High energy demand - Low CDR reliance
  • Natural gas
  • Coal
  • Oil and e-fuels
  • Biomass
  • Biogas
  • Biofuel
  • Electricity
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen

Ghanaʼs transport sector direct CO₂ emissions (of energy demand)


  • Historical emissions
  • SSP1 Low CDR reliance
  • SSP1 High CDR reliance
  • Low energy demand

1.5°C compatible transport sector benchmarks

Direct CO₂ emissions and shares of electricity, biofuels and hydrogen in the transport final energy demand from illustrative 1.5°C pathways for Ghana

Decarbonised transport sector by
Direct CO₂ emissions
4 to 5
0 to 1
2047 to 2050
Relative to reference year in %
−53 to −43%
−100 to −84%
Share of electricity
5 to 21
17 to 36
33 to 44
Share of biofuels
2 to 11
4 to 59
10 to 62
Share of hydrogen
1 to 12
34 to 35
42 to 55