The transport sector represents the second largest share of energy consumption in Ghana, accounting for 34% of total final consumption in 2019. Emissions from the transport sector have risen by 34% between 2012 and 2016, and were responsible for 17% of total national GHG emissions in the same year. The sector was responsible for most of the country’s fuel consumption (56%) in 2016, with diesel, gasoline, and LPG being the most-consumed fuels. Road transportation (particularly passenger vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles and buses) are the largest source of emissions within the sector.
To align with 1.5°C compatible pathways, direct annual CO₂ emissions from the transport sector should be roughly halved by 2030 (from 9 MtCO₂e/yr in 2019 to between 4-5 MtCO₂e/yr in 2030), and reach full decarbonisation by 2047-2050. This can be achieved through a rapid uptake of electricity and potentially the use of biofuels ideally made from non-food feedstocks. The share of electricity could grow from 0% in 2019 to 5-21% by 2030, and 33-44% by 2050 and the share of biofuels from 0% in 2019 to 2-11% by 2030, and between 10-62% by 2050.
While Ghana has articulated various interventions in relation to the transport sector in its NDC, there are no quantified targets available. The updated NDC includes a policy action to expand inter and intra city transport modes (with an estimated mitigation impact of 200 MtCO₂e), although the document does not elaborate on the modes to be expanded.
In 2019, Ghana also launched a “Drive Electric Campaign”, which aimed to promote the use of electric vehicles in the country, and have at least 100 electric vehicles and 10 public charging outlets in the country by 2020. It is unclear if these goals have been met, and what their mitigation potential would be. The Government of Ghana was also developing a Draft Electric Mobility Policy in 2020, although the current status of the policy is unclear.
Lastly, Ghana has articulated its intention to modernise and expand its railway network, which could mitigate emissions from road transportation. While the mitigation potential of most of these interventions is unclear, they are positive steps towards the decarbonisation of the transport sector in Ghana.