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Czech Republic Sectors

What is Czech Republicʼs pathway to limit global warming to 1.5°C?

How to citeLast update: February 2022

Aside from a sudden drop in the early 1990s, emissions from the buildings sector have continued to steadily decrease, with emissions in 2019 56% lower than 1990 levels.4 1.5°C pathways require a drop both in emissions and emissions intensity, with direct CO₂ emissions needing to fall by 12-38% below 2019 levels by 2030.

Electricity’s share of final energy in the buildings sector should increase from 27% in 2019 to 40-48% by 2030 and rise to 61-69% by 2050. Depending on which pathway is followed, the sector could decarbonise as early as 2038, or as late as 2050.

Czechia’s decarbonisation goals require a phasing out of gas and coal boilers, with heating being switched to low-emission sources such as heat pumps. This needs to be combined with improved energy efficiency through retrofitting poorly insulated buildings.13 Residential buildings account for 77% of emissions in the buildings sector, and the Czech government has set a target of renovating 1.4% of residential buildings annually (an annual target of 1.4% has also been applied to non-residential buildings).2

1 European Environment Agency. EEA greenhouse gases – data viewer. 2021.

2 Government of Czech Republic. National Energy and Climate Plan of the Czech Republic. 2019.

3 IEA. World Energy Balances 2020. 2020.

4 Government of Czechia. Czechia.2021 Common Reporting Format (CRF) Table. 2021.

5 Mahe, S. France, Czech Republic and others push for nuclear in EU’s green investment rules. Reuters. 2021.

6 International Energy Agency (IEA). Czech Republic 2021: Energy Policy Review. 2021.

7 Gilbert, A., Sovacool, B. K., Johnstone, P. & Stirling, A. Cost overruns and financial risk in the construction of nuclear power reactors: A critical appraisal. Energy Policy 102, 644–649. 2017.

8 Eash-Gates, P. et al. Sources of Cost Overrun in Nuclear Power Plant Construction Call for a New Approach to Engineering Design. Joule 4, 2348–2373. 2020.

9 Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic. Climate Protection Policy of the Czech Republic: Executive Summary 2017. 2017.

10 European Commission. Assessment of the final national energy and climate plan of Czechia. 2020.

11 Ember. Vision or division?: what do National Energy and Climate Plans tell us about the EU power sector in 2030? 2020.

12 Government of Czech Republic. The Czech Republic’s Hydrogen Strategy. 2021.

13 McKinsey & Company. Pathways to decarbonize the Czech Republic: Carbon-neutral Czech Republic 2050. 2020.

14 Ponikelska, L. Czech Leader Demands Big Changes to EU Green Deal Over Cars. Bloomberg. 2021.

Czech Republicʼs energy mix in the buildings sector

petajoule per year

SSP1 Low CDR reliance
Low energy demand
High energy demand - Low CDR reliance
  • Natural gas
  • Coal
  • Oil and e-fuels
  • Biomass
  • Biogas
  • Biofuel
  • Electricity
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen

Czech Republicʼs buildings sector direct CO₂ emissions (of energy demand)


  • Historical emissions
  • High energy demand - Low CDR reliance
  • SSP1 Low CDR reliance
  • Low energy demand

1.5°C compatible buildings sector benchmarks

Direct CO₂ emissions and shares of electricity, heat and biomass in the buildings final energy demand from illustrative 1.5°C pathways for Czech Republic

Decarbonised buildings sector by
Direct CO₂ emissions
6 to 9
2 to 5
2038 to 2050
Relative to reference year in %
−38 to −12%
−76 to −51%
Share of electricity
40 to 48
51 to 56
61 to 69
Share of heat
17 to 20
26 to 31
Share of hydrogen
1 to 10
8 to 14
16 to 17