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Czech Republic Current situation

What is Czech Republicʼs pathway to limit global warming to 1.5°C?

How to citeLast update: February 2022

Emissions profile

Czechia’s greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 38% between 1990-2019.3 This was particularly notable in the years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when economic restructuring during the early 1990s caused a significant drop in emissions.

The energy sector is responsible for 69% of Czechia’s emissions, making it the largest emitting sector in the country. The power sector is the biggest end-user of energy, accounting for 36% of total emissions.4 This is followed by transport (14%), industry (energy use and processes) (18%), buildings (9%), and agriculture (6%).

1 European Environment Agency. EEA greenhouse gases – data viewer. 2021.

2 Government of Czech Republic. National Energy and Climate Plan of the Czech Republic. 2019.

3 IEA. World Energy Balances 2020. 2020.

4 Government of Czechia. Czechia.2021 Common Reporting Format (CRF) Table. 2021.

5 Mahe, S. France, Czech Republic and others push for nuclear in EU’s green investment rules. Reuters. 2021.

6 International Energy Agency (IEA). Czech Republic 2021: Energy Policy Review. 2021.

7 Gilbert, A., Sovacool, B. K., Johnstone, P. & Stirling, A. Cost overruns and financial risk in the construction of nuclear power reactors: A critical appraisal. Energy Policy 102, 644–649. 2017.

8 Eash-Gates, P. et al. Sources of Cost Overrun in Nuclear Power Plant Construction Call for a New Approach to Engineering Design. Joule 4, 2348–2373. 2020.

9 Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic. Climate Protection Policy of the Czech Republic: Executive Summary 2017. 2017.

10 European Commission. Assessment of the final national energy and climate plan of Czechia. 2020.

11 Ember. Vision or division?: what do National Energy and Climate Plans tell us about the EU power sector in 2030? 2020.

12 Government of Czech Republic. The Czech Republic’s Hydrogen Strategy. 2021.

13 McKinsey & Company. Pathways to decarbonize the Czech Republic: Carbon-neutral Czech Republic 2050. 2020.

14 Ponikelska, L. Czech Leader Demands Big Changes to EU Green Deal Over Cars. Bloomberg. 2021.

Czech Republicʼs current GHG emissions


Displayed values

By sector

  • Power
  • Transport
  • Buildings
  • Industry (energy use)
  • Fugitive emissions
  • Other
  • Industry (processes)
  • Agriculture
  • Waste
Energy (69%)0

By gas

  • CO₂
  • CH₄
  • N₂O
  • Other

Sectors by gas

Industry (processes)

Energy system

Energy supply constitutes the largest sectoral share of emissions in Czechia, making up 69% of total emissions (excl. LULUCF).4 In 2020, coal made up 30% of the total energy supply, followed by oil (21%), nuclear (19%), natural gas (18%), and biofuels and waste (11.5%). Renewables (incl. hydro) made up only 1% of the total energy supply.3

The Czech government aims to phase out coal by 2033, making it one of seven EU countries to phase out coal after 2030.5 With rising EU ETS prices, coal is becoming increasingly less competitive.6 At the same time, renewables are becoming cheaper and more efficient. In order to maintain economic competitiveness and cut emissions in line with the Paris Agreement, Czechia needs to phase out coal by 2029 and divert fossil fuel investments to renewables.

Nuclear currently features strongly in the Czech energy mix and government policy seeks to roughly double its share in primary energy.2,5 Experiences from other parts of the world show that nuclear power is a costly form of energy, and prone to cost and time blowouts, making this a riskier strategy than one focused primarily on maximising the share of renewables in the energy mix.7,8

Targets and commitments

Economy-wide targets

Target type

Base year emissions target

National target

  • 30% reduction below 2005 levels (excl. LULUCF).2

Market mechanism

  • Emissions from industry and electricity are covered by the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS).

Long-term target

  • A reduction of total emissions of at least 80% compared to 1990 levels by 2050.9

Sector coverage


Greenhouse gas coverage


Sectoral targets


  • Increase the share of renewables in gross final energy consumption to 22% by 2030.2
  • Reduce primary energy consumption to 41.43 Mtoe by 2030.2
  • Reduce final energy consumption to 23.65 Mtoe by 2030.2


  • No specific emissions reduction target in place. However, the EU target of an increase in the share of renewables to 14% applies to Czechia.2


  • 1.4% annual renovation rate of residential and non-residential buildings.2