Energy supply constitutes the largest sectoral share of emissions in Czechia, making up 69% of total emissions (excl. LULUCF). In 2020, coal made up 30% of the total energy supply, followed by oil (21%), nuclear (19%), natural gas (18%), and biofuels and waste (11.5%). Renewables (incl. hydro) made up only 1% of the total energy supply.
The Czech government aims to phase out coal by 2033, making it one of seven EU countries to phase out coal after 2030. With rising EU ETS prices, coal is becoming increasingly less competitive. At the same time, renewables are becoming cheaper and more efficient. In order to maintain economic competitiveness and cut emissions in line with the Paris Agreement, Czechia needs to phase out coal by 2029 and divert fossil fuel investments to renewables.
Nuclear currently features strongly in the Czech energy mix and government policy seeks to roughly double its share in primary energy., Experiences from other parts of the world show that nuclear power is a costly form of energy, and prone to cost and time blowouts, making this a riskier strategy than one focused primarily on maximising the share of renewables in the energy mix.,