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Israel Current situation

What is Israelʼs pathway to limit global warming to 1.5°C?

Emissions profile

Israel’s greenhouse gas emissions increased by 104% between 1990 and 2019, from 43 MtCO₂e to 88 MtCO₂e.2 The majority of emissions (78%) come from the energy sector, meaning decarbonising the power, industry and transport sectors will be central to efforts to bring Israel in line with the Paris Agreement.

The power sector accounts for the biggest share of energy emissions, at 39% of total emissions in 2019. This was followed by transport at 21% of GHG emissions. Industrial processes and waste each contributed 10% respectively to Israel’s total emissions (excl. LULUCF). Based on Israel third national communication to the UNFCCC, LULUCF emissions are negligible in the country, accounting for less than 1% of total emissions.

Israel’s population is expanding at a rate of 2% per year and the government is faced with the dual challenge of reducing emissions while managing a rapidly growing population.3 The government’s commitment to reduce emissions by 27% by 2030 relative to 2015 levels, as outlined in its recent NDC, is more ambitious than the previous target (which was resulting in an increase of emissions of around 1% above 2015 levels by 2030).4 However, it is still incompatible with meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement, see the ambition gap section.

1 Government Of Israel. National Action Plan on Climate Change. 2021.

2 Gütschow, J. et al. The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series. Earth System Science Data vol. 8 2016.

3 Arlosoroff, M. Israel’s Population Is Growing at a Dizzying Rate. Is It Up for the Challenge? HAARETZ. 2021.

4 Israel. Updated of Israel’s Nationally Determined Contribution Under the Paris Agreement. UNFCCC. 2021. Preprint at

5 Ivanova, A. Israel devises plan for 40% renewables in 2030. Renewables Now. 2022.

6 Surkes, S. The sun is shining, so why isn’t Israel making hay of its solar energy? The Times of Israel. 2021.

7 Ministry of Environmental Protection. The Finance Committee discussed the framework of a pricing mechanism on carbon, following a government decision on the issue. 2021.

8 Ministry of Environmental Protection. Ministry unveils new waste strategy that is both environmental and economic. 2021.

9 Ministry of Energy. The Israeli government set to approve an unprecedented decision mandating that by the year 2050 Israel will move to a low carbon emissions economy, while dealing with the climate crisis that threatens all of humanity. 2021.

10 Accelerating Climate Action in Israel. OECD, 2020. doi:10.1787/fb32aabd-en.

11 Brode, B. Green construction is the new standard in Israel. The Times of Israel. 2022.

12 Ministry of Environmental Protection. ISRAEL’S THIRD NATIONAL COMMUNICATION ON CLIMATE CHANGE. UNFCCC. 2018. Preprint at (2018).

13 Schmidt, B. Israel unveils plans to go 100 per cent electric by 2030. The Driven. 2018.

Israelʼs current GHG emissions


Displayed values

By sector

  • Combustion
  • Fugitive emissions
  • Other
  • Industry (processes)
  • Waste
  • Agriculture
Energy (78%)75%0

By gas

  • CO₂
  • CH₄
  • Other
  • N₂O

Sectors by gas

Industry (processes)

Energy system

Energy-related emissions constitute a large majority (78% in 2019) of Israel’s total GHG emissions due to a heavy reliance on fossil fuels. Oil comprises the largest share of the energy mix (40%), followed by gas (35%), coal (21%), and finally renewables (3%).

Israel’s NDC outlines a number of commitments regarding energy use. These include reducing emissions from electricity generation by 30% compared to 2015 levels and phasing out coal-fired power generation by 2026.2 While positive steps, these commitments are not sufficient to transition the country to a zero emissions economy.

In February 2022, Israel published an action plan which aims for a 40% share of renewables in its power mix by 2030.5 There is, however, significant room for improvement, and the country would benefit from stronger incentives for renewable energy deployment. So far, the government has been slow to make use of the vast potential for solar power while at the same time it has been expanding fossil gas infrastructure.6

Targets and commitments

Economy-wide targets

Target type

Base year emissions target

NDC target

Unconditional target:

  • 27% below 2015 by 2030 (incl. LULUCF)

Market mechanism

  • From 2023–2028 Israel will implement a carbon tax. Its scope will gradually increase and is expected to cover around 80% of Israel’s GHGs.7

Long-term target

  • Israel has set a 2050 target to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 85% relative to 2015 levels.2

Sector coverage


Greenhouse gas coverage


Sectoral targets


  • To set a new target so that energy intensity of GDP by 2030 would reach 122MWh/NIS 1 million.4


  • At least a 30% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from industry by 2030 relative to 2015 levels.4


  • The increase in emissions from the transport sector limited to 3.3% above 2015 levels by 2030.2


  • Transition from current levels of 80% waste landfilling to 20% by 2030.8


  • A 30% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation by 2030 compared to emissions in 2015.4
  • The share of renewable power generation to increase to 30% by 2030 (NDC), updated to 40% by 2030 in Israel’s renewable energy roadmap.2
  • Coal-fired power generation phased out by no later than 2026.2