Singapore’s transport sector in 2018 made up 12.4% of direct and 2.4% of indirect emissions. Total primary energy consumption of the transport sector in Singapore has been steadily increasing since 1990 from 0.056 EJ in 1990 to 0.16 EJ in 2019. In 2019, the transport sector consumed 13% of total primary energy and 5.8% of electricity. Paris Agreement compatible pathway requires rapid electrification of Singapore’s transport sector with increasing share of electricity in the sector energy demand to 64-90% by 2030 and 96-99% by 2050. All scenarios see a rapid decline in direct emissions from transport to 1-2 MtCO₂/yr by 2030, reaching zero by 2050 from 2019 level of 7 MtCO₂/yr, mostly driven by a high electrification rate. Hydrogen and biofuel don’t show significant growth potential in this sector in our analysed scenarios.
Primary energy consumption in the transport sector is completely dominated by oil (90% in 2017), and all scenarios show a declining trend of fossil energy demand from 2020, reaching zero to 4% share by 2050. One of the scenarios is showing a fossil fuel phase-out from the sector by 2050.
Singapore is planning to phase out Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles by 2040. However, starting from 2030 all newly registered vehicles will be “cleaner-energy” models. Natural gas is part of that “cleaner energy” mix, which is not in line with 1.5°C pathways. To support the uptake of electric vehicles, the government is aiming to deploy 60,000 charging points at public carparks and private premises by 2030. Singapore is also encouraging active transport and modal shift in its Land Transport Master Plan 2040 and there is a strong policy push for increased production of biofuel in Jurong industrial hub, particularly for the aviation and marine sectors.,