Thailand’s building sector represented 19% of final energy consumption in 2019, with the share of commercial and residential sectors being 6% and 12.5%, respectively. The building sector of Thailand accounts for half of the country’s electricity consumption, with a trend that shows an increase of around 16% between 2015 and 2019.
1.5°C compatible pathways show that the share of electricity in Thailand’s building sector final energy demand would need to reach 74–87% by 2030, and 90–97% by 2050 under different scenarios, from its 2019 level of 58%. All scenarios see a rapid decline in emissions intensity of the building sector, driven mostly by energy efficiency improvements, and an increasing electrification rate with a high share of renewables in the power mix.
All analysed scenarios show a rapid decline in the demand for solid biomass, reaching 0–13% by 2050. The share of fossil fuels in final energy demand which was 17% in 2019, is shown to peak in 2019 and decline after that.
Thailand’s Energy Efficiency Plan (EEP 2018) came into force in 2021 and includes a Building Energy Code (BEC) for new or retrofitted buildings with a total area of over 5,000m2 in 2022 and from 2023 to also smaller ones., The BEC also covers appliances such as lighting and air-conditioning. Thailand also has Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for equipment, appliances, buildings and vehicles. Under the EEP 2018, the buildings (commercial and residential) sector is expected to conserve a cumulative 9,718 ktoe of energy between 2010–2037.