Between 2005–2020, almost half of Indonesia’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were from the land sector, mainly due to commodity-driven deforestation (particularly for palm oil), forestry, and peat fires.- Over many years, palm oil, pulp and paper, and timber industries have cleared and prepared the carbon-rich peatland through slash-and-burn tactics and water drainage, leaving the peat layers dry and highly flammable. After forest fire outbreaks in 2015, a year in which the land sector contributed around 80% of the country’s total GHG emissions, Indonesia enforced a moratorium on the clearing and draining of peat lands and primary forests for new oil palm, pulpwood, and timber plantations.,
In its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), Indonesia unconditionally pledged to reduce its emissions by 29% below business-as-usual (BAU) levels by 2030 and to reach net zero emissions by 2060 or sooner, through a net sink in the LULUCF sector., In the 1.5°C compatible pathway analysed here, reforestation and afforestation results in carbon removals of -10 MtCO₂/year by 2030. However, LULUCF continues to be a primary source of future emissions in this pathway, mainly due to continued emissions from peatland that has been drained in the past. Peatland restoration measures will be needed to mitigate these emissions. However, the moratorium law that intends to protect and restore peatland has been underdelivered on, suggesting urgent needs to improve these efforts. Moreover, Indonesia urgently needs to focus on reducing emissions through reducing deforestation, which is currently under risk as Indonesia has announced new regulation with loopholes that could potentially result in land clearing for agriculture and oil palm.,
An analysis estimated that reforestation while securing food, fibre, and biodiversity could remove 212 MtCO₂e/year by 2030; however, greater potential lies in peatland restoration. This estimate is higher than in the analysed 1.5°C compatible pathway, which suggests that there could be more reforestation potential in Indonesia than what the underlying model estimates. However, Indonesia needs adequate international support for large-scale afforestation/reforestation.