Ghana’s total GHG emissions (including the LULUCF sector) have increased on average by 2.1% per annum between 1990 and 2016. Over the same period, however, the national population and economy have expanded at a faster rate than GHG emissions. Emissions per capita have therefore decreased by 13.7%, while emissions per unit of GDP output have decreased by 59.3%.
The energy sector is the largest source of emissions accounting for 36% of total GHG emissions in 2016. The LULUCF sector is second, accounting for 33% of Ghana’s total GHG emissions, with deforestation and the associated expansion of croplands and grasslands being the primary drivers. The agriculture sector contributes to 22% of emissions in 2016, but is notably not accounted for in the mitigation interventions listed in the NDC.
Transport and power, mostly dominated by oil and natural gas, respectively, are the main drivers of energy-related emissions. Livestock and land conversion to cropland are key drivers of agriculture emissions. While the waste sector contributed to only 9% of emissions between 2012 and 2016, it was the fastest-growing emissions source, followed by the energy, agriculture and LULUCF sectors.
Under a BAU scenario, a 201% increase in emissions compared to 1990 levels is anticipated by 2030 (a 73% increase since 2016).