In Egypt, the building sector (direct emissions) accounted for 5% of total emissions in 2019. These emissions have increased by 74% from 1990 to 2019 due to growing energy demand; however, emissions intensity has declined by 42% over the same period due to the increasing share of electrified buildings. Fossil fuel use in the building sector, primarily from oils and e-fuels (26% in 2019) and natural gas (17%), has increased in absolute terms, but was overtaken by electricity in 2005 as the main source of energy for buildings.
All of the analysed pathways show an immediate decline in building sector emissions. Full decarbonisation of the sector is reached between 2038 and 2045. Globally all buildings should be fully decarbonised by 2050.
Declining direct emissions in the analysed pathways are driven by increasing electrification of the building sector from just over half of building sector energy in 2019 to 72-74% by 2030 and 94-95% by 2050, for the most ambitious scenarios. Increased electrification will drive decarbonisation of the sector only through decarbonisation of the power sector (see power sector) Fossils fuels needs to be phased out as early as 2035 to 2040, to align with a 1.5°C pathway. The only scenario that does not see a significant phase down of fossil fuels by 2060 assumes a high reliance on CDR approaches, likely due to high up-front investments costs and not yet proven at scale.
Decarbonising the building sector will require significant efforts to electrify the sector, as energy demand is expected to grow, which will need to be supported by policies to develop and improve current grid infrastructure. Egypt has adopted mandatory energy efficiency codes for buildings; however, the government enforcement mechanisms have not been effective in getting these implemented.