Viet Nam’s energy sector is dominated by fossil fuels, which contributes to more than half of its total emissions. Economic growth and the government’s goal to ensure affordable, universal electrification have led to rising energy demand, which is largely met by fossil fuels, in particular coal. Viet Nam became a net energy importer in 2014, which presents risks to energy security. However, Viet Nam has large, untapped potential for renewable energy, especially solar and offshore wind resources.
Viet Nam’s main emitting sector is its energy sector, which includes transport and other end use sectors. It comprises 55% of emissions (excluding LULUCF). The industrial sector is responsible for 12% of total emissions (excluding LULUCF), and has grown by 140% over the past decade. Industrial process emissions are mainly from cement production, followed by steel, lime and ammonia production. These sectors are harder to abate, but need to peak emissions immediately and decline to follow a Paris Agreement compatible pathway. Decarbonisation efforts therefore need to prioritise industry and energy sectors.
Agriculture emissions cover 28% of emissions excluding LULUCF. Emissions are mainly from rice cultivation, livestock (enteric fermentation and manure management) and soil management. Waste accounts for 7% of total emissions. Half of waste emissions are the result of waste disposal sites and 30% from domestic wastewater treatment.