Tanzania’s energy is dominated by traditional biomass. Biomass accounted for 82% of its total energy supply in 2019, followed by oil and gas at 12% and 3%, respectively and renewable energy that includes hydro, wind and solar making up the remaining 3%. The majority of the population (around 70%) living in rural areas rely on biomass for cooking and heating thus the government has prioritised electrification to enable a shift to electricity for cooking., In the power sector, renewables made up around 34% in 2019.
According to its national energy policy, Tanzania has an estimated hydro potential of up to 4.7GW. In 2021 it had only 573.7 MW (around 12%) hydro capacity installed., It plans to increase generation from renewable sources such as geothermal, hydro and solar.,, Tanzania also plans to ramp up investment in natural gas and coal to reach 6700MW (33%) and 5300 (26%) by 2044. In 2021 coal was less than 1% of its power generation. Further investments in fossil fuels risk locking the country in high carbon intensive pathway., In May 2021, Tanzania and Uganda signed an agreement of the East Africa Crude Oil Pipeline signalling continued investment in fossil fuels. This further puts into question its commitment to low-carbon development.