Saudi Arabia’s GHG emissions have increased steeply by almost fourfold between 1990 and 2017. A majority of this rise in emissions can be attributed to the energy sector with an increase from 136 MtCO₂e/yr in 1990 to 537 MtCO₂e/yr in 2017, which accounted for 83% of total GHG excluding LULUCF.
The share of the energy sector has remained almost constant since 2012 when it contributed for 84% of overall GHG emissions in Saudi Arabia. Within the energy sector, the power sector is the single largest source of GHG emissions, accounting for about a one-third share in overall GHG emissions. This is followed by manufacturing and energy industries (21%), and transport (19%).
As the world’s largest producer of oil, fugitive emissions form a notable share of overall emissions (11%). Saudi Arabia’s economy is heavily reliant on oil exports, with expected contribution of nearly 62% of total government revenues in 2020. Industrial process, waste, and agriculture emissions constitute the remaining share of Saudi Arabia’s GHG emissions.
Under current policies, GHG emissions are projected to rise 46-61% above 2015 levels and reach 933-1035 MtCO₂e/yr by 2030.