Energy consumption in India’s building sector has been steadily increasing since 1990. In 2019, residential and commercial building sector consumed 25% of the total primary energy and 24% of electricity consumption. Analysed 1.5°C pathways show that the share of electricity in the building sector energy mix could reach 44-80% in 2030 and 77-90% by 2050 under different scenarios. All scenarios see direct CO₂ emissions declining rapidly, between 59-79% by 2040 and 86-100% by 2050. The drop is mostly driven by an increased electrification rate with a high share of renewables in the power mix and increased energy efficiency. Paris Agreement compatible pathways show that the sector could reach net zero emissions by 2029-2040. This would bring along large benefits such as increased life quality for citizens and direct health impacts through improved air quality.
Solid biomass is an important energy source for the sector, particularly for cooking, with a share ranging from 52-53% in 2020. All analysed scenarios see a rapid decline in biomass demand dropping to 2% by 2050. Share of coal and natural gas is not significant (less than 1% in 2030), with all scenarios showing a declining trend with both being phased out by 2050.
In 2017, the Indian government revised its Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) for new commercial buildings, aiming to reduce energy use by 50% by 2030. In 2018, to push for energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government launched the ECBC-R also for residential buildings, followed by an Energy Efficiency Label in February 2019. India has not yet pursued a near-zero energy building strategy.